W. Edwards Deming, the father of quality management outlined 14 points he felt were essential to implementing and succeeding with Total Quality Management (TQM) practices. These 14 points first appeared in 1982 when Deming published Out of Crisis and are the foundation for the mindset and action an organization needs to achieve TQM success.
And companies like Toyota and Honda which followed these “best practices”, were decades ahead of their slow moving, reluctant-to-change competitors. Though Deming published these over35 years ago, every organization can gain great benefits from adopting a TQM mindset and purpose.
Create constancy of purpose toward improvement of product and service, with the aim to become competitive and to stay in business, and to provide jobs.
Adopt the new philosophy. We are in a new economic age. Western management must awaken to the challenge, must learn their responsibilities, and take on leadership for change.
Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality. Eliminate the need for inspection on a mass basis by building quality into the product in the first place.
End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag. Instead, minimize total cost. Move toward a single supplier for any one item, on a long-term relationship of loyalty and trust.
Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service, to improve quality and productivity, and thus constantly decrease costs.
Institute training on the job.
Institute leadership. The aim of supervision should be to help people and machines and gadgets to do a better job. Supervision of management is in need of overhaul as well as supervision of production workers.
Drive out fear, so that everyone may work effectively for the company
Break down barriers between departments. People in research, design, sales, and production must work as a team, to foresee problems of production and in use that may be encountered with the product or service.
Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets for the work force asking for zero defects and new levels of productivity. Such exhortations only create adversarial relationships, as the bulk of the causes of low quality and low productivity belong to the system and thus lie beyond the power of the work force.
(a) Eliminate work standards (quotas) on the factory floor. Substitute leadership. 11a
(b) Eliminate management by objective. Eliminate management by numbers, numerical goals. Substitute leadership.
(a) Remove barriers that rob the hourly worker of his right to joy of workmanship. The responsibility of supervisors must be changed from sheer numbers to quality. 12a
(b) Remove barriers that rob people in management and in engineering of their right to joy of workmanship. This means abolishment of the annual merit rating and of management by objective
Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement.
Put everybody in the company to work to accomplish the transformation. The transformation is everybody's job